1 of or pertaining to or contained in or in accordance with the Bible; "biblical names"; "biblical Hebrew" [syn: biblical]
2 written or relating to writing
- Of or pertaining to scripture.
expert-subject Religion Religious texts, also know as Holy Scripture, Sacred Scripture or Holy Writ, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred, or of central importance to their religious tradition. Many religions and spiritual movements believe that their sacred texts are divinely or supernaturally inspired. The names of sacred scriptures are often capitalized as a mark of respect or tradition.
The Rigveda of Hinduism was composed between 1500–1300 BCE, making it the world's oldest religious text still in use. The oldest portions of the Zoroastrian Avesta are believed to have been transmitted orally for centuries before they found written form, and although widely differing dates for Gathic Avestan (the language of the oldest texts) have been proposed, scholarly consensus floats at around 1000 BCE.
The first scripture printed for wide distribution to the masses was The Diamond Sutra, a Buddhist scripture, and is the earliest recorded example of a dated printed text, bearing the Chinese calendar date for 11 May 868 CE.
Sacred texts of various religions:
- Bon Kangyur and Tengyur
- Theravada Buddhism
- East Asian Mahayana
- Tibetan Buddhism
- The Books of the Bible
- Some forms of Christianity:
- The Apocrypha
- Latter Day Saint denominations (see also Standard Works):
- Cerdonianism and
- Gospel of Marcion
- the Apostolicon
- Rasa'il al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom)
- In Purva Mimamsa
- Mimamsa Sutras of Jaimini
- In Vedanta (Uttar Mimamsa)
- Brahma Sutras of Bādarāyaņa
- In Yoga
- Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
- In Samkhya
- Samkhya Sutras of Kapila
- In Nyaya
- Niyaya Sutras of Gautama
- In Vaisheshika
- Vaisheshika Sutras of Kanada
- In Vaishnavism
- Vaikhanasa Samhitas
- Pancaratra Samhitas
- In Saktism
- Sakta Tantras
- In Kashmir Saivism
- 64 Bhairavagamas
- 28 Saiva Agamas
- Shiva Sutras
- In Pasupata Saivism
- Pasupata Sutras of Lakulish
- Panchartha-bhashya of Kaundinya (a commentary on the Pasupata Sutras)
- Ratnatika of Bhasarvajna
- In Saiva Siddhanta
- 28 Saiva Agamas
- Tirumurai (canon of 12 works)
- Meykandar Shastras (canon of 14 works)
- In Gaudiya Vaishnavism
- Brahma Samhita
- Jayadeva's Gita-govinda
- In Kabir Panth
- poems of Kabir
- In Dadu Panth
- poems of Dadu
- Hermetica, Emerald tablet and associated writings
- 11 Angas
- 12 Upangas, 4 Mula-sutras, 6 Cheda-sutras, 2 Culika-sutras, 10 Prakirnakas
- 11 Angas
- Jina Vijaya
- Tattvartha Sutra
- GandhaHasti Mahabhashya (authoratative and oldest commentary on the Tattvartha Sutra)
- The Ginza Rba
- Book of the Zodiac
- Qulasta, Canonical Prayerbook
- Book of John the Baptizer
- Diwan Abatur, Purgatories
- 1012 Questions
- Coronation of Shislam Rba
- Baptism of Hibil Ziwa
- Indigenous and Aboriginal mythologies
New Age religionsVarious New Age religions may regard any of the following texts as inspired:
- The Orphic Poems
- Primary religious texts, that is, the Avesta collection:
- The Yasna, the primary liturgical collection, includes the Gathas.
- The Visparad, a collection of supplements to the Yasna.
- The Yashts, hymns in honor of the divinities.
- The Vendidad, describes the various forms of evil spirits and ways to confound them.
- shorter texts and prayers, the five Nyaishes ("worship, praise"), the Sirozeh and the Afringans (blessings).
- There are some 60 secondary religious texts, none of which are
considered scripture. The most important of these are:
- The Dēnkard (middle Persian, 'Acts of Religion'),
- The Bundahishn, (middle Persian, 'Primordial Creation')
- The Mainog-i-Khirad (middle Persian, 'Spirit of Wisdom')
- The Arda Viraf Namak (middle Persian, 'The Book of Arda Viraf')
- The Sad-dar (modern Persian, 'Hundred Doors', or 'Hundred Chapters')
- The Rivayats (modern Persian, traditional treatises).
- For general use by the laity:
ViewsAttitudes to sacred texts differ. Some religions make written texts widely and freely available, while others hold that sacred secrets must remain hidden from all but the loyal and the initiate. Most religions promulgate policies defining the limits of the sacred texts and controlling or forbidding changes and additions. Some religions view their sacred texts as the "Word of God", often contending that the texts are inspired by God and as such not open to alteration. Translations of texts may receive official blessing, but an original sacred language often has de facto, absolute or exclusive paramountcy. Some religions make texts available free or in subsidized form; others require payment and the strict observance of copyright.
References to scriptures profit from standardisation: the Guru Granth Sahib (of Sikhism) always appears with standardised page numbering while many other religions (including the Abrahamic religions and their offshoots) favour chapter and verse pointers.
In the Qur'an, God (Allah in arabic), states (2:62): Surely, those who believe, those who are Jewish, the Christians, and the converts; anyone who (1) believes in GOD, and (2) believes in the Last Day, and (3) leads a righteous life, will receive their recompense from their Lord. They have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve. http://www.submission.org/
Other TerminologyOther terms are often by adherents to describe the canonical works of their religion. In the United States, terms like 'Holy Writ' and others are used by some Christian groups (including the King-James-Only Movement) to describe the Christian Bible or, less often, by Muslim groups to describe the Qur'an.
Another term is 'Holy Scripture' or 'Sacred Scripture', used to denote the text's importance, its status as divine revelation, or, as in the case of many Christian groups, its complete inerrancy. Christianity is not alone in using this terminology to revere its sacred book; Islam holds the Qur'an in similar esteem, as does Hinduism the Vedas and Bhagavad Gita, and Buddhism the sutras.
HierographologyHierographology (Greek ιερος, hieros, "sacred" or "holy", + γραφος, graphos, "writing", + λογος, logos, "word" or "reason") (archaically also 'hierology') is the study of sacred texts.
Increasingly, sacred texts of many cultures are studied within academic contexts, primarily to increase understanding of other cultures, whether ancient or contemporary. Sometimes this involves the extension of the principles of higher criticism to the texts of many faiths. It may also involve a comparative study of religious texts. The hierographology of the Qur'an can be particularly controversial, especially when questioning the accuracy of Islamic traditions about the text.
scriptural in Arabic: كتاب مقدس
scriptural in Aragonese: Libro sagrato
scriptural in Czech: Svatá kniha
scriptural in German: Liste Heiliger Schriften
scriptural in Modern Greek (1453-): Ιερό Σύγγραμμα
scriptural in Spanish: Libro sagrado
scriptural in French: Texte sacré
scriptural in Friulian: Sacris Scrituris
scriptural in Korean: 경전
scriptural in Hindi: धर्मग्रन्थ
scriptural in Italian: Testi sacri
scriptural in Hebrew: כתבי קודש
scriptural in Kannada: ಧಾರ್ಮಿಕ ಗ್ರಂಥಗಳು
scriptural in Dutch: Heilig boek
scriptural in Japanese: 聖典
scriptural in Norwegian: Hellige bøker
scriptural in Polish: Święte księgi
scriptural in Portuguese: Livro sagrado
scriptural in Russian: Священные писания
scriptural in Simple English: Scriptures
scriptural in Finnish: Pyhä kirjoitus
scriptural in Swedish: Helig skrift
scriptural in Telugu: పవిత్ర గ్రంధములు
scriptural in Turkish: Kutsal metin listesi
scriptural in Walloon: Sint live
scriptural in Chinese: 經籍
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